Wattled Jacana 211122 11
11/22/21 stream/marsh off PanAm Hwy between Canopy Camp & Yavisa, Darien, Panama
Red-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus
Red-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus indicus
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ODC: Mending This was a walk through a nature reserve that was ravaged by fire in December 2019. Two years on there has been major re-growth of Wattle across the reserve. The lush green undergrowth that you see are young wattles, crowded together. Over time, some of these will survive, others not, making way for the reestablishment of other varieties of vegetation as nature goes about the process of mending itself.
Wattled Jacana 211120 10
11/20/21 Santa Librada, Darien, Panama
Au jardin, prémices de mimosa des fleuristes (Acacia dealbata), Bosdarros, Béarn, Pyrénées Atlantiques, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.
Wattle-pig Weevil (Leptopius maleficus or Leptopius nodicollis), Cattana Wetlands, QLD.
The Guildhall building is believed to date from the late 14th century. Its upper floors project out in the usual fashion of timber-framed structures. The building was extensively renovated in 1978-9, but much early timber-work survives, as do wattle-and-daub internal walls.
The ground floor of the building is occupied by a private business. There is no evidence that this was ever an open structure; it seems to have functioned for various types of trading from at least the sixteenth century, and possibly throughout its existence.
The open roof structure shows two markedly dissimilar types of construction, although dendrochronological study has revealed that all the timber dates from the time the building was originally constructed. There is virtually no documentary evidence of the construction or early structure of the Guildhall, and the earliest illustrations are of 19th century date. Detailed investigation of the structure of the building has recently been undertaken by English Heritage and Carlisle City Council, and should help to resolve many unanswered questions.
Black Cockatoo on Wattle tree 1_sm
Black Cockatoo on Wattle tree 2
The lookout tree while the partner feeds in the Hakea.
South Africa - Golden Gate Highlands National Park
Wodehouse Peak Trail
Lonely Common Elend
Golden Gate Highlands National Park is located in Free State, South Africa, near the Lesotho border. It covers an area of 340 km2 (130 sq mi). The park's most notable features are its golden, ochre, and orange-hued, deeply eroded sandstone cliffs and outcrops, especially the Brandwag rock. Another feature of the area is the numerous caves and shelters displaying San rock paintings. Wildlife featured at the park includes mongooses, eland, zebras, and over 100 bird species. It is the Free State's only national park, and is more famous for the beauty of its landscape than for its wildlife. Numerous paleontology finds have been made in the park, including dinosaur eggs and skeletons.
"Golden Gate" refers to the sandstone cliffs found on either side of the valley at the Golden Gate dam. In 1875, a farmer called J.N.R. van Reenen and his wife stopped here as they travelled to their new farm in Vuurland. He named the location "Golden Gate" when he saw the last rays of the setting sun fall on the cliffs.
In 1963, 47.92 km2 (11,840 acres) were proclaimed as a national park, specifically to preserve the scenic beauty of the area. In 1981, the park was enlarged to 62.41 km2 (15,420 acres), and in 1988, it was enlarged to 116.33 km2 (28,750 acres). In 2004, the park was announced to be joining with the neighbouring QwaQwa National Park. The amalgamation of QwaQwa National Park was completed in 2007, increasing the park's area to 340 km2 (84,000 acres).
The park is 320 km (200 mi) from Johannesburg and is close to the villages of Clarens and Kestell, in the upper regions of the Little Caledon River. The park is situated in the Rooiberge of the eastern Free State, in the foothills of the Maluti Mountains. The Caledon River forms the southern boundary of the park, as well as the border between the Free State and Lesotho. The highest peak in the park (and also in the Free State) is Ribbokkop at 2,829 m (9,281 ft) above sea level.
The park is located in the eastern highveld region of South Africa, and experiences a dry, sunny climate from June to August. It has showers, hail, and thunderstorms between October and April. It has thick snowfalls in the winter. The park has a relatively high rainfall of 800 mm (31 in) per year.
The park is an area of rich highveld and montane grassland flora. It has more than 60 grass species and a large variety of bulbs and herbs. Each of these species has its own flowering time, meaning that veld flowers can be seen throughout the summer. The park also has Afromontane forests and high-altitude Austro-Afro alpine grassland, which is scarce in South Africa. The ouhout (Leucosidea sericea), an evergreen species, is the most common tree in the park. Ouhout is a favourite habitat of beetles and 117 species occur on these trees in the park. The Lombardi poplars and weeping willows in the park are introduced species, but are kept because of their cultural and historic connection with the eastern Free State. Other exotic species in the park, for example wattle and bluegum, are systematically eradicated.
Instead of reintroducing one of the "big five" into the park, the sungazer lizard and water mongoose were reintroduced. Twelve species of mice, 10 species of carnivores, and 10 antelope species have been recorded in the park. The grey rhebuck and the mountain reedbuck were present when the park was established.
The geology of the park provides very visual "textbook" examples of Southern Africa's geological history. The sandstone formations in the park form the upper part of the Karoo Supergroup. These formations were deposited during a period of aeolian deposition towards the end of the Triassic Period. At the time of deposition, the climate of the area the park covers was becoming progressively drier until arid desert conditions set in, resulting in a land of dunes and sandy desert, with occasional scattered oases. The deposition of the sandstones ended when lava flowed out over the desert 190 million years ago.
The following sequence of geological formations is visible in the park (starting from the bottom): the Molteno Formation, Elliott Formation, Clarens Formation, and Drakensberg Formation. The yellow-brown Golden Gate and Brandwag cliffs are made up of the Clarens formation. The layers in this formation are 140 to 160 m (460 to 520 ft) thick. The Drakensberg formation comprises the basaltic lava that flowed over the desert. It forms the mountain summits in the park. On Ribbokkop, it is 600 m (2,000 ft) thick. The Elliot Formation is a red mudstone where many dinosaur fossils have been found.
The oldest dinosaur embryos ever discovered were found in the park in 1978. The eggs were from the Triassic Period (220 to 195 million years ago) and had fossilised foetal skeletons of Massospondylus, a prosauropod dinosaur. More examples of these eggs have since been found in the park. Other fossils found in the park include those of advanced cynodontia (canine toothed animals), small thecodontia (animals with teeth set firmly in the jaw), and bird-like and crocodile-like dinosaurs.
Accommodation in the park is available at Glen Reenen and Brandwag Rest camps. Caravan and camp sites with all amenities are available at Glen Reenen camp. The hotel was formerly part of Brandwag camp, but since its recent refurbishment, it is managed separately by SANParks as Golden Gate Hotel. The nearest town to Golden Gate Highlands National Park is Clarens (17 km to the west), but Phuthaditjhaba is also easily reached by a good tar road, driving through the access gate to the east of the park.
This park will be included into the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation Area, Peace Park.
The common eland (Taurotragus oryx), also known as the southern eland or eland antelope, is a savannah and plains antelope found in East and Southern Africa. It is a species of the family Bovidae and genus Taurotragus. An adult male is around 1.6 metres (5') tall at the shoulder (females are 20 centimetres (8") shorter) and can weigh up to 942 kg (2,077 lb) with an average of 500–600 kg (1,100–1,300 lb), 340–445 kg (750–981 lb) for females). It is the second largest antelope in the world, being slightly smaller on average than the giant eland. It was scientifically described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1766.
Mainly an herbivore, its diet is primarily grasses and leaves. Common elands form herds of up to 500 animals, but are not territorial. The common eland prefers habitats with a wide variety of flowering plants such as savannah, woodlands, and open and montane grasslands; it avoids dense forests. It uses loud barks, visual and postural movements and the flehmen response to communicate and warn others of danger. The common eland is used by humans for leather, meat, and rich, nutritious milk, and has been domesticated in many areas.
It is native to Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe but is no longer present in Burundi. While the common eland's population is decreasing, it is classified as "Least Concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The scientific name of the common eland is Taurotragus oryx, composed of three words: tauros, tragos and oryx. Tauros is Greek for a bull or bullock, meaning the same as the Latin taurus. Tragos is Greek for a male goat, referring to the tuft of hair that grows in the eland's ear and its resemblance to a goat's beard. Oryx is Latin and Greek (generally orygos) for pickaxe, referring to the pointed horns of North African antelopes like the common eland and scimitar-horned oryx.
The name 'eland' is Dutch for "elk" or "moose". It has a Baltic source similar to the Lithuanian élnis, which means "deer". It was borrowed earlier as ellan (French) in the 1610s or Elend (German). When Dutch settlers came to the Cape Province, they named it after the large, herbivorous moose. In Dutch the animal is called "Eland antelope" to distinguish it from the moose, which is found in the northern boreal forests.
Common elands are spiral-horned antelopes. They are sexually dimorphic, with females being smaller than the males. Females weigh 300–600 kg (660–1,320 lb), measure 200–280 cm (79–110 in) from the snout to the base of the tail and stand 125–153 cm (49–60 in) at the shoulder. Bulls weigh 400–942 kg (882–2,077 lb), are 240–345 cm (94–136 in) from the snout to the base of the tail and stand 150–183 cm (59–72 in) at the shoulder. The tail is 50–90 cm (20–35 in) long. Male elands can weigh up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
Their coat differs geographically, with elands in northern part of their range having distinctive markings (torso stripes, markings on legs, dark garters and a spinal crest) that are absent in the south. Apart from a rough mane, the coat is smooth. Females have a tan coat, while the coats of males are darker, with a bluish-grey tinge. Bulls may also have a series of vertical white stripes on their sides (mainly in parts of the Karoo in South Africa). As males age, their coat becomes more grey. Males also have dense fur on their foreheads and a large dewlap on their throats.
Both sexes have horns with a steady spiral ridge (resembling that of the bushbuck). The horns are visible as small buds in newborns and grow rapidly during the first seven months. The horns of males are thicker and shorter than those of females (males' horns are 43–66 centimetres (17–26 in) long and females' are 51–69 centimetres (20–27 in) long), and have a tighter spiral. Males use their horns during rutting season to wrestle and butt heads with rivals, while females use their horns to protect their young from predators.
The common eland is the slowest antelope, with a peak speed of 40 kilometres (25 mi) per hour that tires them quickly. However, they can maintain a 22 kilometres (14 mi) per hour trot indefinitely. Elands are capable of jumping up to 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) from a standing start when startled (up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) for young elands). The common eland's life expectancy is generally between 15 and 20 years; in captivity some live up to 25 years.
Eland herds are accompanied by a loud clicking sound that has been subject to considerable speculation. It is believed that the weight of the animal causes the two halves of its hooves to splay apart, and the clicking is the result of the hoof snapping together when the animal raises its leg. The sound carries some distance from a herd, and may be a form of communication.
Common elands live on the open plains of southern Africa and along the foothills of the great southern African plateau. The species extends north into Ethiopia and most arid zones of South Sudan, west into eastern Angola and Namibia, and south to South Africa. However, there is a low density of elands in Africa due to poaching and human settlement.
Elands prefer to live in semi-arid areas that contain many shrub-like bushes, and often inhabit grasslands, woodlands, sub-desert, bush, and mountaintops with altitudes of about 15,000 ft (4,600 m). Elands do, however, avoid forests, swamps and deserts. The places inhabited by elands generally contain Acacia, Combretum, Commiphora, Diospyros, Grewia, Rhus and Ziziphus trees and shrubs; some of these also serve as their food.
Eland can be found in many National Parks and reserves today, including Nairobi National Park and Tsavo East National Park, Tsavo West National Park, Masai Mara National Reserve, (Kenya); Serengeti National Park, Ruaha National Park and Tarangire National Park, Ngorongoro Crater, (Tanzania); Kagera National Park (Rwanda); Nyika National Park (Malawi); Luangwa Valley and Kafue National Park (Zambia); Hwange National Park, Matobo National Park, Tuli Safari Area and Chimanimani Eland Sanctuary (Zimbabwe); Kruger National Park, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Giant's Castle and Suikerbosrand NR (South Africa).
They live on home ranges that can be 200–400 km2 for females and juveniles and 50 km2 for males.
Common elands are nomadic and crepuscular. They eat in the morning and evening, rest in shade when hot and remain in sunlight when cold. They are commonly found in herds of up to 500, with individual members remaining in the herd anywhere from several hours to several months. Juveniles and mothers tend to form larger herds, while males may separate into smaller groups or wander individually. During estrus, mainly in the rainy season, groups tend to form more regularly. In southern Africa common elands will often associate with herds of zebras, roan antelopes and oryxes.
Common elands communicate via gestures, vocalizations, scent cues and display behaviors. The flehmen response also occurs, primarily in males in response to contact with female urine or genitals. Females will urinate to indicate fertility during the appropriate phase of their estrous cycle, as well as to indicate their lack of fertility when harassed by males. If eland bulls find any of their predators nearby, they will bark and attempt to attract the attention of others by trotting back and forth until the entire herd is conscious of the danger. Some of their main predators include lions, African wild dogs, cheetahs and spotted hyenas. Juvenile elands are more vulnerable than adults to their predators.
Females are sexually mature at 15–36 months and males at 4–5 years. Mating may occur anytime after reaching sexual maturity, but is mostly seen in the rainy season. In Zambia, young are born in July and August, while elsewhere it is the mating season. Mating begins when elands gather to feed on lush green plains with plentiful grass, and some males and females start mating with each other in separate pairs. Males chase the females to find out if they are in estrus. They also test the female's urine. Usually, a female chooses the most dominant and fit male to mate with. Sometimes she runs away from males trying to mate, causing more attraction. This results in fights between males, in which their hard horns are used. It is 2–4 hours before a female allows a male to mount. Males usually keep close contact with females in the mating period. The dominant male can mate with more than one female. Females have a gestation period of 9 months, and give birth to only one calf each time.
Males, females and juveniles each form separate social groups. The male groups are the smallest; the members stay together and search for food or water sources. The female group is much larger and covers greater areas. They travel the grassy plains in wet periods and prefer bushy areas in dry periods. Females have a complex linear hierarchy. The nursery and juvenile group is naturally formed when females give birth to calves. After about 24 hours of the delivery, the mother and calf join this group. The calves start befriending each other and stay back in the nursery group while the mother returns to the female group. The calves leave the nursery group when they are at least two years old and join a male or female group.
Currently, common elands are not endangered. They are conserved by the United States Endangered Species Act, and regulated in international trade by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Using ground counts and aerial surveys, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) calculates the population density of the common eland to be between 0.05 and 1 per square kilometre with a total population estimate of 136,000. Populations are considered stable or increasing in the countries of Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Malawi and possibly Tanzania.
The population is, however, gradually decreasing due to habitat loss, caused by expanding human settlements and poaching for its superior meat. As they are docile and inactive most of the time, they can easily be killed. The species became extinct in Swaziland and Zimbabwe, but has been reintroduced.
The IUCN states that about half of the estimated total population lives in protected areas and 30% on private land. Protected areas that support major populations include Omo (Ethiopia), Serengeti, Katavi, Ruaha and Selous-Kilombero (Tanzania), Kafue and North Luangwa (Zambia), Nyika (Malawi), Etosha (Namibia), Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (Botswana/South Africa) and Ukhahlamba Drakensberg Park (South Africa). Most of these populations appear to be stable. Relatively large numbers of common eland now live on private land, particularly in Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa, reflecting its value as a trophy animal. Common elands have also been widely domesticated in Zimbabwe, South Africa and Kenya, as well as in Russia and Ukraine.
Der Golden-Gate-Highlands-Nationalpark (englisch Golden Gate Highlands National Park) liegt in Südafrika, im Südosten des Freistaates nahe der Grenze zu Lesotho, und zeichnet sich besonders durch seine malerischen Felslandschaften aus. Orange oder ocker gefärbte Sandsteinfelsen ragen über das bergige Grasland auf. Außerdem gibt es Felsmalereien der San.
Der nördliche Eingang zum Park liegt bei dem Künstlerdorf Clarens.
Die Elenantilope (Taurotragus oryx), auch Eland genannt, ist eine in Afrika lebende Antilope. Gemeinsam mit der Riesen-Elenantilope, die zwar nicht größer ist, aber längere Hörner hat, bildet sie die Gattung der Elenantilopen.
Charakteristisches Merkmal dieser Art sind die eng gedrehten, geraden Hörner, die bei beiden Geschlechtern vorhanden sind, die „Schulterbeule“ sowie die 2 bis 15 hellen Querstreifen auf dem Oberkörper. Das Haarkleid ist gelbbraun oder fahl und verfärbt sich bei älteren Tieren an Hals und Schultern blaugrau. Bei ausgewachsenen Männchen entwickeln sich eine Wamme sowie ein Haarbüschel an der Stirn.
Mit einem Gewicht zwischen 500 und 1000 Kilogramm und einer Körperlänge von zwei bis drei Metern ist sie die größte Antilopenart. Die Schulterhöhe beträgt im Schnitt 1,5 Meter. Damit ist die Elenantilope so groß wie ein Rind, macht aber einen schlankeren Eindruck.
Elenantilopen leben in den offenen Ebenen, trockenen Savannen sowie den bergigen Graslandschaften Ost-, Zentral- und Südafrikas.
Obwohl sie in der Regel gemächliche Tiere sind, können Elenantilopen bis zu 70 Kilometer pro Stunde schnell laufen. Sie sind außerdem als sehr gute Springer bekannt. Während sie in der Tageshitze im Schutz eines Baums oder Gebüschs ruhen, werden sie zur Dämmerung aktiv. Sie sind Laubfresser, ernähren sich aber auch gelegentlich von Gras und graben mit den Vorderhufen Knollen und Wurzeln aus.
Die Herden bestehen im Schnitt aus 25 Tieren, können aber unter günstigen Bedingungen bis zu 700 Individuen umfassen. Die größten Herden scheinen aber nur zeitweise Zusammenschlüsse ohne feste Bindung zu sein. Normalerweise bestehen Herden aus einem ausgewachsenen Bullen sowie aus mehreren Kühen, jungen Männchen und Jungtieren. In seltenen Fällen kann eine Herde mehr als ein ausgewachsenes Männchen beinhalten; dann wird früh die Rangordnung ausgefochten. Dafür werden die Hörner gegeneinandergestoßen, was zu schweren Verletzungen führen kann.
Auf die hohen Temperaturen ihrer Umwelt sind sie perfekt eingestellt: Während der Trockenzeit steigt ihre Körpertemperatur um sieben Grad. Damit vermeiden sie einen durch Schwitzen verursachten Wasserverlust.
Elenantilopen sind wahrscheinlich leicht zu domestizieren. Ihre Milch hat verglichen mit Kuhmilch den dreifachen Fett- und den doppelten Proteinanteil. Außerdem ließen sich Fleisch und Haut nutzen. Doch erst im ausgehenden 20. Jahrhundert wurden Domestikationsversuche unternommen, und bisher finden sie in bescheidenem Ausmaß statt. Da Elenantilopen gegenüber dem Menschen genügsam und nicht aggressiv auftreten, könnte den Versuchen aber letztlich Erfolg beschieden sein.
Die häufigste Interaktion zwischen Menschen und Elenantilopen ist allerdings die unkontrollierte Bejagung, durch die das Tier in weiten Gebieten seines Verbreitungsgebiets selten geworden ist. Am häufigsten sind Elenantilopen in der Serengeti, wo die Population schätzungsweise 7000 Tiere umfasst.
Die Elenantilope wird von der Weltnaturschutzunion IUCN in der Roten Liste gefährdeter Arten als Art Tragelaphus oryx geführt. Sie wird als nicht gefährdet (Least Concern) eingestuft.
Red-wattled Lapwing । Did He Do It । হট্টিটি পাখি । লাল-লতিকা হটটিটি ।
Dahuk River, Moynaguri Tea Estate, Shalbahan, Tetulia, Panchagarh
Bindenlappenschnäpper / Brown-throated Wattle-eye (Platysteira cyanea nyansae), Kibale Forest, Uganda
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Wattled Jacana IMG_4369
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